Aaron Turon

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A vision for portability in Rust

TL;DR: This post proposes to deprecate the std facade, instead having a unified std that uses target- and capability-based cfgs to control API availability. Leave comments on internals!

Portability is extremely important for Rust, in two distinct (and sometimes competing!) ways:

  • Rust should be usable in almost any environment, and ideally much of the ecosystem would be as well.

  • Rust should be low-friction when writing for “mainstream” platforms (32- and 64-bit machines running Windows, Linux, or macOS).

An example of the tension between these two goals is handling allocation:

  • Some targets for Rust do not support allocation natively, so Rust must at least have a “mode” in which no allocation is assumed.

  • For “mainstream” applications and platforms, we want to assume not only that allocation is available, but that running out of memory is a catastrophic failure. Those assumptions are reasonable for a huge amount of software, and making them greatly reduces the friction to writing Rust code.

We’ve been slowly evolving a set of answers to this kind of question, and part of the point of this blog post is to step back and try to give a unifying vision for how to approach portability issues in Rust.

But first, let’s take stock of where we are today.

The status quo

The facade

Rust’s standard library is actually made up of three “rings” of increasing assumptions:

  • core: assume “nothing” about the target platform.
  • alloc: assume that allocation is available.
  • std: assume that “mainstream” OS facilities are available.

In particular, std is partly a “facade” crate that re-exports almost all of the functionality from core and alloc. This factoring allows crates that target core to be seamlessly used with crates that target std, and led to the no_std flag. So far, only core and std are stable.

Problems with the facade

While the three-layer division may seem very clean, in practice things turn out to be far more complicated:

  • core does not in fact assume “nothing”: some core types like i128 and AtomicU8 are available within core, but not available on all platforms Rust targets. Thus, on some of these platforms, these definitions are simply missing (i.e. have cfg applied).

  • For non-mainstream OSes, often only a portion of std functionality is available. The remaining pieces are either cfg-ed out, return errors, or panic if you try to use them.

  • Because the crates are separated, there are some trait coherence issues, which std uses special magic to overcome.

  • Libraries have to specifically opt in to no_std and rewrite to use core rather than std. While it’s relatively rare for a library to just happen to be no_std compatible, it’s still a bit of a papercut.

The root issue here is that the three-layer arrangement is based on a particular division of environment capabilities, and that reality is not so simple.

Environment-specific extensions

Today we provide access to low-level or OS-specific services via the std::os module. APIs in this module are largely traits that extend the cross-platform APIs, and in particular can expose their OS-level representation. The fact that these APIs require explicitly importing from std::os provides a small “speed bump” for venturing out of guaranteed mainstream platform portability.

Problems with environment-specific extensions

  • The std::os module has submodules that correspond to a hierarchy of OS types. But it’s not at all clear how to use the module hierarchy to organize features like fixed-size atomic types, where the types available vary in a fine-grained way based on the CPU family; SIMD is even worse. And even the OS story is ultimately not such a simple hierarchy.
  • The “speed bump” for using std::os is minimal and easy to miss; it’s just an import that looks the same as any other.

  • Platform-specific APIs don’t live in their “natural location”. The majority of std::os works through extension traits to enhance the functionality of standard primitives, rather than providing inherent methods directly on the relevant types.

The vision

Rather than today’s assortment of approaches to portability, I propose the following consolidated story:

  • There is just std.
  • All APIs in std live in their “natural” location.
  • APIs not supported by a target are cfg-ed off for that target.
  • There are capability-based cfg flags.
  • You can use the portability lint to check for compatibility with arbitrary platform assumptions.

In short, I propose that we move away from the facade, the std::os model, and runtime failure, and instead embrace target- and capability-based cfgs as the sole way of expressing portability information.

The portability lint makes it possible to compile and test on one target while checking that you are not accidentally making assumptions based on that target. For example, by default Rust code will be checked for “mainstream” portability, so that even if you’re compiling on Windows, any use of a Windows-specific API will be linted against. If you want to be compatible with today’s “no_std” ecosystem, you can tune the knob to check that you are–but you won’t have to change from std to core. The RFC has full details.

To make this all work, we will need to give careful design to the set of cfg flags and their interrelations.

And to fully gain from abandoning the facade (i.e., to remove the special magic used in std today), we would need to use an epoch boundary to fully remove libcore.

As part of this effort:

  • std itself should likely be refactored to make maintaining the external cfg information as easy as possible, and to create a sharper division between public APIs and internal, platform-specific implementation.

  • We would need to reconceptualize “pluggability” into std. For example, today no_std allows you to define certain primitives, like panic handling, which are normally defined by std. We would need a way to instead swap out std’s default definition. Some related issues have come up in the wasm world, where ideally we would let you plug in your own JS imports to define things like printing to stdout.

Call to action

The vision above is deliberately sketchy. The fact of the matter is that the Rust project has never had a group of people tasked with thinking about portability and platform support from a holistic design perspective–and as we continue to expand Rust, we really need that.

In particular, we need help:

  • Implementing the portability lint.
  • Fleshing out a unified std design.
  • Designing a clean, coherent cfg hierarchy.
  • Refactoring std to make portability cleaner and easier.
  • Designing a more general “plugability” story.
  • Ensuring that we provide top-notch support for platform capabilities.

I propose that the Rust project spin up a dedicated Portability Working Group devoted to this work. The group will need a strong leader who can take a holistic, design-focused view of things. If you’re interested in leading or participating in such a group, please leave a comment on the internals thread!